Canada Demographics

Population of Canada (2023)

View live population, charts & trends: Population of Canada

Canada Population
Yearly Change
+ 0.85%
Global Share
Global Rank

Median Age

The median age in Canada is 40.6 years (2023).

Fertility in Canada

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

pregnant_woman Total Fertiliy Rate (TFR)
(Live Births per Woman, 2023)

Life Expectancy in Canada

See also: Countries in the world ranked by Life Expectancy

Both Sexes
83.0 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
84.9 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
81.1 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Canada

Infant Mortality
(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
Deaths under age 5
(per 1,000 live births)

Canada Urban Population

Currently, 81.4 % of the population of Canada is urban (31,563,358 people in 2023)

Population Density

The 2023 population density in Canada is 4 people per Km2 (11 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 9,093,510 Km2 (3,511,022 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Canada

1 Toronto 2,600,000
2 Montreal 1,600,000
3 Calgary 1,019,942
4 Ottawa 812,129
5 Edmonton 712,391
6 Mississauga 668,549
7 North York 636,000
8 Winnipeg 632,063
9 Vancouver 600,000
9 Scarborough 600,000
10 Quebec 528,595
11 Hamilton 519,949
12 Brampton 433,806
13 Surrey 394,976
14 Laval 376,845
15 Halifax 359,111
16 Etobicoke 347,948
17 London 346,765
18 Okanagan 297,601
19 Victoria 289,625
20 Windsor 278,013
21 Markham 261,573
22 Oshawa 247,989
23 Gatineau 242,124
24 Vaughan 238,866
25 Kitchener 233,700
26 Longueuil 229,330
27 Burnaby 202,799

See also



Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called "Age-Sex Pyramid") is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive - pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population. Example: Nigera Population Pyramid
  • Constrictive - pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one). Example: United States
  • Stationary - with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as "working age" may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the "dependent" population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.